A. Aschnu. College of Charleston.
This condition order speman 60pills fast delivery mens health yoga, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait generic speman 60 pills without prescription prostate cancer epidemiology, is the most common form of muscular dystrophy of adult life with a worldwide prevalence of 2. While affecting predominantly adults, it also occurs in childhood and early infancy with an estimated incidence of 1 in 8000 births. It is characterized by myotonia in association with muscle weakness and wasting plus a whole syndrome complex with additional features such as frontal balding (males), cataracts, cardiomyopathy with conduction defects, gonadal atrophy possible asso- ciated with infertility and low intelligence or dementia (Table 2). The genetic basis for DM1 is an expansion of CTG repeats on chromosome 19. Interestingly, infants with congenital DM1 have very large repeat expansions ( >1000 CTG repeats). Almost invariably, these infants have inherited the condition from their mother. The maternal bias in transmitting DM1 is due to increased likelihood of generating very large repeat expansions during oogen- esis as compared to spermatogenesis. DM1 is also characterized by extreme anticipa- tion generally associated with an intergenerational increase in CTG expansion corresponding to increase in disease severity in the offspring. The diagnosis of DM1 can be made by clinical ﬁndings supported by genetic analysis of CTG repeats of chromosome 19. Serum creatine kinase activity can be elevated in adults but is usually within normal range in infants and mildly affected adults. In case of a signiﬁcant hypotonic infant, the mother (who may not be aware of their condition) should be clinically examined. The examination should include evaluation for facial weakness (inability to close eyes tightly, bury the eyelashes), myotonia of the hands and percussion myotonia of the tongue. Electromyography studies in adult patients and in minimally affected mothers of infants with the conge- nital form of DM1 show the pathognomonic spontaneous myotonic bursts of activity with gradual decrement, giving the typical ‘‘dive bomber’’ or ‘‘departing motor cycle’’ sound on acoustic ampliﬁcation. Cardiac arrhythmia, especially heart block caused by progressive degeneration of the conduction system, is the second leading cause of mortality in DM1. Genetic analysis has revealed that patients with larger expansions of CTG repeats are at increased risk of intraventricular conduction delay at baseline and show more rapid progression of the conduction defect. Therefore, cardiac evaluation including basal ECG, 24 hr Holter monitoring and echocardiogram should be routinely performed Combined Muscle and Brain Diseases 165 (once per year) in all patients presenting with DM1. Often, implanting of a pace- maker or a cardioverter-deﬁbrillator is required. Supportive management of muscle weakness, constipation, endocrine pro- blems, eye abnormalities, and mental impairment comprises a major part of the management of patients with DM1. In addition, it is of utmost importance to emphasize the risk for generalized anesthesia, sedation, and analgesia (especially thiopentane should be avoided) because of sudden death reported in several cases. The risk is independent of the clinical severity of DM1 and clinical catastrophies can occur even in subclinical cases. CONGENITAL FIBER TYPE DISPROPORTION Congenital ﬁber type disproportion (CFTD) is a congenital myopathy initially described by Brooke in 1973 purely on the basis of consistent abnormalities detected on muscle biopsy associated with relatively good clinical prognosis. The type 1 ske- letal muscle ﬁbers were found to be smaller than type 2 ﬁbers by a margin of more than 25% of the diameter of the type 2 ﬁbers. These ﬁndings are in contrast to nor- mal skeletal muscle in children where type 1 and type 2 ﬁbers are of approximately equal size. The CFTD is suspected to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait with some rare exceptions. The clinical picture is characterized by congenital hypotonia and delayed motor milestones. The disease is often associated with congenital dislocation of the hip, high arched palate, kyphoscoliosis, and contractures. Serum creatine kinase may be slightly elevated and infrequently, a myopathic pattern on electromyography can be detected. The diagnosis is ﬁnally made after thorough histological analysis of a skeletal muscle biopsy revealing the above described inbalance of type1 and type 2 skeletal muscle ﬁbers.
Instead discount 60 pills speman overnight delivery mens health week nz, she continues with the data collection until ‘saturation’ point is reached buy cheap speman 60pills line prostate infection causes, that is, no new information is being provided. Grounded theory is therefore ﬂexible and en- ables new issues to emerge that the researcher may not have thought about previously. Perhaps the easiest way to do this is to de- cide ﬁrst of all whether you should consider qualitative or quantitative research. If you have not already done so, go through each question in relation to your own research. Once you have done this, clues will start to emerge about what is the best form of inquiry for you. Cer- tain words help to suggest a leaning towards qualitative research, others towards quantitative research. For exam- ple, if you have written ‘how many’, ‘test’, ‘verify’, ‘how often’ or ‘how satisﬁed’, this suggests a leaning towards quantitative research. If you have written words such as ‘discover’, ‘motivation’, ‘experiences’, ‘think/thoughts’, ‘problems’, or ‘behave/behaviour’, this suggests a leaning towards qualitative research. However, you may ﬁnd that you have written a combination of these words which could mean two things. Firstly, you might want to think about combining both qualitative and quantitative re- search, which is called triangulation. Many researchers be- lievethisisagoodwayofapproachingresearchasit enables you to counteract the weaknesses in both qualita- tive and quantitative research. Secondly, it could mean that your ideas are still unclear and that you need to focus a little more. To help you understand the thought processes involved in these decisions, let’s return to the exercise given in the previous chapter: EXAMPLE 2: Revised statements Original statement 1: This research aims to ﬁnd out what people think about television. After having thought about how to focus her topic, make the project more manageable and produce a worthwhile piece of research, the researcher came up with the following revised statement: HOW TO DECIDE UPON A METHODOLOGY / 21 Revised Statement 1: This research aims to ﬁnd out what primary school teachers think about the educational value of ‘The Teletubbies’ television programme. When the stu- dent suggested this research it was also very topical – The Teletubbies had been released only four weeks prior to the research and complaints about their language were ﬁlling the national media. The student wishes to get an in-depth opinion, but is not concerned with speaking to a large number of primary school teachers. Original statement 2: My project is to do some research into Alzheimer’s disease, to ﬁnd out what people do when their relatives have it and what support they can get and how nurses deal with it. Also, he found out some more information about whether his research needed to go to a Research Ethics Committee by checking out the website www. This site gives details about the committees, a list of meeting dates, guidance notes and application forms for those researchers interested in putting forward a proposal. Revised statement 2: The aim of this research is to ﬁnd out how many relatives of Alzheimer’s patients use the Maple Day Centre, and to ascertain whether the ser- vice is meeting their needs. The research population is limited to relatives of Alzhei- mer’s patients who use the Maple Day Centre. One clue 22 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS to the methodology is in the words ‘how many’ which suggests a quantitative study. However, he is also inter- ested in ﬁnding out whether the service meets their needs, which requires some more in-depth inquiry. Original Statement 3: We want to ﬁnd out how many of the local residents are interested in a play scheme for chil- dren during the summer holiday. The tenants’ association thought carefully about the is- sues in which they were interested, eventually coming up with the following revised statement: Revised Statement 3: This research aims to ﬁnd out how many people from our estate are interested in, and would use, a children’s play scheme in the school summer holiday. The tenants’ association wanted to obtain funding for their play scheme and felt that it was important to gather sta- tistics which they could take to possible funding organi- sations. SUMMARY X The research methodology is the philosophy or general principle which guides the research. HOW TO DECIDE UPON A METHODOLOGY / 23 X Examples of qualitative methodologies include action research, ethnography, feminist research and grounded theory. X Quantitative research generates statistics through the use of large-scale survey research. X Neither qualitative nor quantitative research is better – they are just diﬀerent. X Your own intuition and the words you use will give pointers to whether qualitative or quantitative research is more appropriate for your chosen project.
More and more did his thoughts turn to now conﬁrmed and the active agent revealed buy discount speman 60 pills line prostate cancer mortality rate. His ideal of what next step was to prevent microorganisms from should happen in a wound was what occurred in gaining access to the open ﬂesh speman 60pills on line mens health xtreme muscle pro. To the attainment a subcutaneous injury, such as a simple fracture of this ideal, and to the perfection of its accom- in which repair took place without inﬂammation, plishment, Lister dedicated the rest of his life. He suppuration, or constitutional disease; and none started by casting about for a suitable antiseptic was better placed or better equipped for the solu- and on learning of the success of carbolic acid as tion of this bafﬂing problem. From early life he a disinfectant in dealing with sewage at Carlisle, had been accustomed to the scientiﬁc attitude he decided to give this chemical a trial on wound towards phenomena around him and he had been treatment. After investigation with the pure acid, fortunate in the masters who trained him. When he ﬁnally adopted a 1 in 20 watery solution, and he arrived in Glasgow, he was already mature as this strength of carbolic acid became a permanent a scientiﬁc investigator; indeed among surgeons feature of his technique. With this solution he there was scarcely anyone so well equipped; he cleansed his hands, his instruments, the patient’s belonged to the Hunterian tradition. Lint soaked in car- Of his many papers embodying the results of bolized oil was ﬁrst used as a dressing but after researches, two in particular were of great signi- many experiments was abandoned in favor of a ﬁcance, indicating the trend of his thinking and putty made of carbonate of lime and a solution of the preparation leading to the accomplishment of 1 in 6 carbolic acid in linseed oil. The study of coagulation of the The result of this treatment upon abscesses and blood attracted his attention for many years. Suppuration physiological phenomenon in the healing of disappeared; wounds became healthy; patients wounds formed the subject of his Croonian were comfortable; the number of amputations Lecture before the Royal Society in 1863. In con- diminished rapidly; and Lister was able to say: sidering the pathology of the open wound, he was “But since the antiseptic treatment has been led to the study of the genesis of inﬂammation. Lister, with his microscope, respects under precisely the same circumstances observing the capillaries of the frog’s web and the as before, have completely changed their charac- bat’s wing when they were subject to irritants of ter; so that during the last nine months not a all kinds, accurately described for the ﬁrst time single instance of pyaemia, hospital gangrene, or 199 Who’s Who in Orthopedics erysipelas has occurred in them. As there pied in Edinburgh was far superior to the one appears to be no doubt regarding the cause of this offered him in London, but he was attracted by change, the importance of the fact can hardly be the great city itself and the opportunity it gave exaggerated. He therefore migrated south, 1867, entitled “On a New Method of Treating back to the city of his youth, where he had many Compound Fracture, Abscess, etc. The introduction of subcutaneous to gain acceptance of the antiseptic principle as tenotomy had been hailed as a great advance in fundamental in the practice of surgery. The road the treatment of deformities, but it had strict lim- he had to travel in gaining his objective was more itations. For some years there dawned a new era of immense possibilities his teaching was misunderstood and he had to for the treatment of injuries, diseases, and defor- meet violent criticism. Indeed the successful management of the medical schools were indifferent, or accorded the compound fracture by Lister stands at the very doctrine a chilly reception. On the other hand, beginning of the introduction of the antiseptic well-known surgeons in France and Germany method. He pointed out that blood clot, protected were not slow to see the merits of the antiseptic by an antiseptic, would be organized by the principle and he was encouraged by the enthusi- ingrowth of cells and vessels from its vicinity; in asm of some industrial surgeons at home. He also explored the best missionaries of the new surgical learning badly united fracture, reset the fragments and were Lister’s house surgeons and pupils. He was the ﬁrst to explore simple had been witnesses of the principle in practice and transverse fractures of the patella and olecranon with conviction they went out to preach the new and to bind them with wire until union occurred. The rest of Lister’s time at Glasgow was In 1880, William Macewen of Glasgow, a pupil occupied in the observation and recording of of Lister, operated upon a boy whose shaft of the various diseases and injuries dealt with by the humerus had been destroyed by osteomyelitis. He also introduced carbolized sewed tibial grafts along the former track of the catgut for the ligature of arteries after testing it in bone and a new shaft was reproduced. He internal semilinar cartilage completely separated became fully occupied with the duties of the from its anterior attachment to the tibia. The Chair and of his large private practice, but in the cartilage was stitched back in its proper place, the laboratory in his own home he carried out end- man recovered perfect movement of the joint and less experiments with the object of improving returned to his work. For many years before methods of carrying out the antiseptic principle Esmarch introduced his elastic bandage, Lister and rendering its use in everyday practice more had operated upon bloodless limbs. This provided a bloodless ﬁeld for 200 Who’s Who in Orthopedics operation.
For the rest speman 60 pills low cost prostate cancer is, the problem or crisis was personal (emotional cheap 60pills speman overnight delivery mens health 15 minute meals, psychological and/or spiritual) in nature. According to Scott, “I really began to confront my own sort of stuff like emotional issues, looking at my child- hood. I do this in part for clarity of prose but primarily because of the very few informants who cited a belief in a mind, body, spirit connection as the reason they first tried alternative therapies. For almost all informants, an initial foray into alternative health care was an instance of practical action taken in order to solve what, at that time, they saw as relatively discrete problems. Physical Problems For the majority of these informants, attempting to solve a physical problem or reacting to a physical trauma was the reason they first sought out alter- native therapies. For some, the problem was something they assessed as rel- atively minor. In Greg’s words, “I guess my first experience in what I’d call full-blown alternative medicine would be [when] I caught some kind of stomach bug. For example, Betty told me, “I ended up running into some physical problems, two very infected ears, something I’d never had before, and a rash. For instance, Hanna said, “I didn’t really take [alternative therapies] too seriously until I had an injury, a car accident,” and Simon told me, “I was quite into athletics. According to Lucy, “I had all the problems of chronic fatigue syndrome plus I had gained fifty pounds, but the medical field, their answer was ‘Well, your liver is damaged, yes, but you can survive quite nicely. For Natalie the significant event was the breakdown of her marriage: “I was in such a rut, my marriage was going downhill and I couldn’t pull out of it. And there were such negative vibes in my home that I decided that the only way that I could pull out of it was to get positive vibes in my mind. By the time the second week of January rolled by I said to somebody: ‘I feel like I’ve lived a whole year already. Scott’s personal crisis involved the break-up of his family and the end of an intimate partnership: “That time that I was getting into [alternative therapies] was also the time of my family really disintegrating, and I was feeling really suicidal, and actually becoming suicidal. This was made plain to me when I found that explanations reported in the literature as to why people seek out alternative forms of healing were not significant factors in motivating those I spoke with to first use these therapies. As I have demonstrated, concept- ualizing people’s initial motivation to use alternative therapies in push/pull terms is problematic. For instance, all but two informants were not pulled towards alternative approaches to health care. They were not shopping for an ideology10 when they first sought out alternative therapies. Holism and control, both aspects of their alternative ideology of health, were beliefs they came to value and espouse after they began participating in alternative health care. They were things they learned through interaction with alternative practitioners and other users of alternative approaches to health and healing, making them a product of, rather than motivator for, their use of these therapies (Deierlein 1994). Thus, ideological factors are better employed in explaining why people continue to use alternative therapies. Furthermore, the argument that people are pushed towards alternative therapies as a result of dissatisfaction with allopathic medicine does not sufficiently explain why people turn to alternative therapies. While those Why People Turn to Alternative Therapies | 51 who participated in this research did associate disillusionment with allopathic medicine with their initial forays into alternative health care, none had wholly rejected allopathic medicine in favour alternative therapies. And as Sharma (1992:77) rightly points out, dissatisfaction with allopathic medicine can not fully explain an individual’s decision to turn to alternative therapies, as discontent with Western medicine is “by no means confined to users of complementary medicine. In this case they found an alternative solution in alternative approaches to health and healing. THE WIDER SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT I have argued that these informants’ initial use of alternative therapies is an instance of problem-solving reflective of generic social processes. But in what social context does this generic process of problem-solving take place? Or more precisely, is the choice of alternative therapy as a solution to problems of ill health reflective of larger socio-cultural change whereby alternative solutions constitute a new option in health-seeking behaviour? In addressing this issue, authors have explained lay participation in alternative therapies by placing it within the context of larger socio-cultural changes in beliefs about health, illness, and the body, which include the following: disillusionment with medical science; lay demands for a larger share of control over health and healing; and a belief in holistic health care, where “health is more than a lack of disease...
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