By Q. Topork. Concord College.
Ellemeyer and Westphal (1995) demonstrated that females showed greater pupil dilation at high tonic pressure levels applied to their fingers buy discount viagra jelly 100mg online erectile dysfunction treatment home, suggest- ing that at least some aspects of gender differences in pain perception are beyond voluntary control buy viagra jelly 100mg amex erectile dysfunction frequency. Paulson, Minoshima, Morrow, and Casey (1998) found gender differences in perceptual and neurophysiological responses to painful heat stimulation using positron emotion tomography, with fe- males showing significantly greater activation of the contralateral prefront- al cortex, insula, and thalamus. Pain Prevalence and Development Pain is common in children (McAlpine & McGrath, 1999), with 15% of school- age children reporting musculoskeletal pain (Goodman & McGrath, 1991). Moreover, abdominal pain affects 75% of students and occurs weekly in 13–15% of children studied (Hyams, Burke, Davis, Rzepski, & Andrulonis, 1996). Chapter 5, by Gibson and Chambers, documents prevalence rates across the life span as well as increases in pain as a function of increasing age. Gibson and Chambers also document gender differences in pain that are evident before adulthood. Conditions often associated with pain (musculoskeletal disease, heart disease, neoplastic disease, HIV/AIDS) increase with advancing age, as does the frequency of pain problems, although these prevalence increases stop by the seventh decade of life (Helme & Gibson, 1999). Cook and Thomas (1994) found that 50% of older adults reported experiencing daily pain and another 26% reported experiencing pain at least once in the week prior to INTRODUCTION 7 their survey. In another survey of seniors living in the community, 86% re- ported experiencing significant pain in the year prior to participation in the study with close to 60% reporting multiple pain complaints (Mobily, Herr, Clark, & Wallace, 1994). In a recent investigation of 3,195 nursing home resi- dents in three Canadian provinces, Proctor and Hirdes (2001) estimated the overall prevalence of pain in this sample as being close to 50% with approxi- mately 24% of residents experiencing daily pain. Moreover, these investiga- tors compared seniors with and without cognitive impairments and did not find any differences in the prevalence of potentially painful conditions. In a related study, Marzinski (1991) examined patients’ charts at an Alzheimer unit and found that 43% of the patients had painful conditions, a finding con- sistent with the observation that cognitive impairment does not spare peo- ple from the many sources of pain that could afflict anyone (Hadjistav- ropoulos, von Baeyer, & Craig, 2001). Nonetheless, as is often the case in studies of the epidemiology of pain, the prevalence rates vary from study to study as a function of methodology and the questions that were investi- gated. This volume is intended to provide a better understanding of the complex and widespread psychological experience of pain. THE PERSPECTIVES In chapter 1, this volume, Melzack and Katz examine the gate control theory and transformations in our understanding of pain since it was published (Melzack & Wall, 1965). The theory integrated diverse areas we now refer to as the neurosciences and accommodated psychological perspectives to explain phenomena ignored by earlier sensory specific models of pain. In describing the neural bases for the complexities of pain experience, it in- spired many major research and clinical advances, for example, our under- standing of neuroplasticity as a basis for chronic pain (Melzack, Coderre, Katz, & Vaccarino, 2001). The theory has continued to grow, assimilating new knowledge and inspiring Melzack’s recent neuromatrix model of pain. The theory and developments had major importance for the psychological and medical management of pain. Also, it opened the door for the develop- ment and popularity of the biopsychosocial model of pain, which is the fo- cus of chapter 2, this volume, by Asmundson and Wright. This model ac- cepts an original physical basis of pain, even when an anatomical site or pathophysiological basis cannot be established, but also recognizes the im- portance of affective, cognitive, behavioral, and social factors as contribu- tors to chronic illness behavior. An overview of cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic perspectives is also provided in this chapter. The chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the model, its origins, and its empiri- cal and theoretical support. The author recognizes that pain has been defined as a distressing, complex, multidimensional experience. This requires a focus on perceptual mechanisms and the construction of conscious experience, as well as con- sideration of affective and motivational features. The latter are often ne- glected, as importance is attached to sensory mechanisms. Psychophysical and psychophysiological work provide a solid core for these investigations. Chapman’s chapter develops the bridge between physiological mecha- nisms of pain and psychological practice by linking conscious perceptual processes with physiological functions. His concept of pain is broad (and mostly addresses “intrapersonal determinants” of the experience).
If the 1RM for a particular exercise excess postexercise oxygen consumption (see is 80 kg buy viagra jelly 100mg on-line do erectile dysfunction pills work, then a weight of 40 kg would be a 50% and below) purchase viagra jelly 100 mg online testosterone associations with erectile dysfunction diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. It is The specificity principle states that physiological, neu- highly correlated with exercise intensity, and the fast rological, and psychological adaptations to training are portion may reflect resynthesis of stored PC and specific to the “imposed demand. The slow develop speed, power, and specific metabolic path- component may reflect elevated body temperature, ways, the imposed demand must target those specific catecholamines, accelerated metabolism (conversion areas. Low numbers of repetitions (6–10 RM) are associated with increases in strength and high num- Resistance exercise is used to improve muscular fit- bers (20–100 RM) are associated with increases in ness, which is a combination of strength, endurance, endurance. Strength is the greatest force a muscle can tion from strength to endurance. The primary components to muscle hypertrophy include a neural response, followed by an upregulation WEIGHT TRAINING PARAMETERS of second messenger systems to activate the family of W hen training with weights, the magnitudes of immediate early genes that dictate the responses of increase in muscle strength and endurance depend on contractile protein genes, and message passing down the specific training parameters: repetitions, sets, to alter protein expression. The Repetition maximum: The amount of force a subject new contractile proteins appear to be incorporated can lift a given number of repetitions defines repeti- into existing myofibrils and there may be a limit to tion maximum (RM). For example, 1RM is the maxi- how large a myofibril can become: they may split at mal force a subject can lift with one repetition and some point. Hypertrophy results primarily from 5RM would be the maximal force someone could lift growth of each muscle cell, rather than an increase in five times. For examples, repetitions could be 5, 10, Physiologic adaptations and performance are linked 12, 25, or 50. For BIOMECHANICAL FACTORS IN MUSCLE STRENGTH example, a training session could consist of three sets Neural control, muscle cross-sectional area, arrange- of 12 repetitions. For example, if the ity, strength-to-mass ratio, body size, joint motion session was three sets of 12 repetitions, the volume (joint mobility, dexterity, flexibility, limberness, and would be 3 × 12 or 36 repetitions. Volume indicates range of motion), point of tendon insertion, and the how much work was done: the greater the volume, the interactions of these factors influence muscle greater the total work. CHAPTER 8 BASICS IN EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY 45 DELAYED-ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS different VO2max values. Tom would be working at Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a term 2. It is usually noted the day after the exercise and may ADAPTATIONS TO TRAINING last 3 to 4 days. The force generated RESISTANCE TRAINING by a lengthening contraction (eccentric) can be Resistance training induces a variety of adaptations, markedly increased if it is followed by a shortening with clear increases in strength. EXERCISE TRAINING Fiber type specific adaptations induced by resistance training depend on volume and intensity, but a PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING common change is an increase in the percentage of Type IIa fibers, at the expense of the Type IId(x/b) FITT: This is an acronym to describe a physical train- fibers. Resistance training is not usually associated ing variable that can be altered to achieve various fit- with increases in VO2max, but may enhance overall car- ness goals. FITT stands for frequency, intensity, time diovascular function by improving strength that (duration), and type of exercise. ESTIMATING STRENGTH Periodization: This is a technique that involves alter- AND ENDURANCE ing training variables (repetitions/set, exercises per- formed, volume, and rest interval between sets) to AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC POWER achieve well-defined gains in muscular strength, endurance, and overall performance for a specific Simple in-office and field tests can be used to estimate event. These include the 2-mi run, 12-min run, and 2max the body ready for a new activity–about 4 weeks), fol- the 3-min step test. Other tests include submaximal lowed by strength development (4 to 7 weeks) and cycle ergometry. Tests for anaerobic power include then muscular endurance (8 to 12 weeks). Rodriguez LP, Lopez-Rego J, Calbet JA, et al: Effects of training number of push-ups, pull-ups, and/or sit-ups, as well status on fibers of the musculus vastus lateralis in professional as hand grip dynamometry (sustained submaximal road cyclists. Testing and Interpretation: Including Pathophysiology and Clinical Applications, 3rd ed. REFERENCES 9 ARTICULAR CARTILAGE INJURY Demirel HA, Powers SK, Naito H, et al: Exercise-induced alera- tions in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain phenotype: Dose- Stephen J Lee, BA response relationship. Brian J Cole, MD, MBA Gaesser GA, Poole DC: The slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics in humans, in Holloszy JO (ed. Pette D, Staron RS: Transitions of muscle fiber phenotypic pro- INTRODUCTION files.
Charles Townes (physicist and Nobel laureate who codeveloped the laser order 100 mg viagra jelly with visa impotence from prostate removal, 1995) Once you have chosen the journal and survived the draft processes order viagra jelly 100 mg visa erectile dysfunction drugs causing, checked that your paper is complete, and given it one final appraisal to ensure that it looks good and reads beautifully, you are ready to send your paper to a journal. Never hesitate to give your final draft one last proofread, one last spell check, and one last walk through the checklists and Instructions to Authors before you put it into the envelope or press the submit button. Although only the first author need sign the covering letter, some journals also require all authors to sign a copyright form, which must accompany the covering letter when the paper is submitted. The data included in this manuscript have not been published previously and are not under consideration by any other journal. All authors have read this final manuscript and have given their approval for the manuscript to be submitted in its present form. As the corresponding author, my contact details are shown on the cover page of the manuscript. Yours sincerely Although some journals now accept electronic submissions, many journals still require paper communication, especially for the first submission. If you use the electronic method, carefully follow the journal instructions about file formats and how to separate your paper into the separate electronic files that are required for the text, the tables, and the figures. If you do submit your paper electronically, you are likely to receive an automated reply when your paper is received. If electronic submission is not available or you chose not to use it, then package the required number of paper copies in a strong envelope that will survive a national or international journey. If you are enclosing photographs, sandwich them in strong cardboard to prevent them from being dented or folded en route. Also, label them clearly on the reverse with your name and the title of your paper, marking the labels before you attach them to the photos, so that you do not indent the photograph. Always keep exact electronic and paper copies of the manuscript you submitted to the journal together with the correspondence, figures, photographs etc. You should receive an acknowledgement that your paper has reached the journal editor within one month of sending it and a letter from the editor about the status of your paper within four months. Papers occasionally get lost in the mail and occasionally get lost in the system after they have been officially received by the journal. If you do not receive your letters from the editor, it pays to consider these possibilities. Philip Lake (disputing Wegener’s theory of continental drift in 1928; 1865–1949) Once your paper is submitted, the data and all of the documentation surrounding the data analyses should be stored in a durable and appropriately referenced form. Wherever possible, the original data in the form of questionnaires, data collection sheets, CDs, medical records, etc. Data should be held safely for as long as readers of publications might reasonably expect to be able to raise questions that require reference to them. Some research funding bodies stipulate that this should be at least five years, others state 10 years. Before you discard your data or the documentation of your data analyses, you must be certain that you are not contravening the policies of either your institution or your funding bodies. All references to where the data are held and how it is archived should be logged in a study handbook that is freely available to all stakeholders and research staff who have been involved in the study. Although individual researchers may hold copies or subsets of the data, a complete data set free of errors and updated with all corrections must be archived and safely stored at all times. In this way, anyone can repeat your analyses or use the data set to answer new questions as they arise. Acknowledgements The Huxley quote has been produced with permission from Collins Concise Dictionary of Quotations, 3rd edn. The Townes and Lake quotes have been produced with permission from Horvitz, LA ed. Abstract presented at Thoracic Society of Australia, Annual Scientific Meeting, Canberra, 1992. Egotism in prestige ratings of Sydney suburbs: where I live is better than you think. Similar, the same or just not different: a guide for deciding whether treatments are clinically equivalent.
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