By W. Ernesto. Anderson College.
Cross References Coma; Decerebrate rigidity Déjà Entendu A sensation of familiarity akin to déjà vu but referring to auditory rather than visual experiences discount 100 mg extra super levitra visa erectile dysfunction over the counter. Déjà Vécu -see DÉJÀ VU Déjà Vu Déjà vu (literally “already seen”) is a subjective inappropriate impres- sion of familiarity for a present experience in relation to an undefined past order extra super levitra 100 mg erectile dysfunction consult doctor. However, since the term has passed into the vernacular, not every patient complaining of “déjà vu”has a pathological problem. The term may be used colloquially to indicate familiar events or experiences. Recurrent hallucinations or vivid dream-like imagery may also enter the differential diagnosis. Epileptic déjà vu may last longer and be more frequent, and may be associated with other features, such as depersonalization and dere- alization, strong emotion, such as fear, epigastric aura, or olfactory hallucinations. Epileptic déjà vu is a complex aura of focal onset epilepsy; specifically, it is indicative of temporal lobe onset of seizures, and is said by some authors to be the only epileptic aura of reliable lat- eralizing significance (right). Déjà vécu (“already lived”) has been used to denote a broader experience than déjà vu but the clinical implica- tions are similar. Déjà vu may also occur with psychiatric illness, such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. Practical Neurology 2003; 3: 106-109 Cross References Aura; Hallucination; Jamais vu Delirium Delirium, also sometimes known as acute confusional state, acute organic reaction, acute brain syndrome, or toxic-metabolic encephalopathy, is a neurobehavioral syndrome of which the cardinal feature is a deficit of attention, the ability to focus on specific stimuli. Diagnostic criteria also require a concurrent alteration in level of aware- ness, which may range from lethargy to hypervigilance, although delir- ium is not primarily a disorder of arousal or alertness (cf. Other features commonly observed in delirium include: - 88 - Delirium D Impaired cognitive function: disorientation in time and place Perceptual disorders: illusions, hallucinations Behavioral disturbances: agitation, restlessness, aggression, wander- ing, which may occur as a consequence of perceptual problems; Language: rambling incoherent speech, logorrhea Altered sleep-wake cycle: “sundowning” (restlessness and confu- sion at night) Tendency to marked fluctuations in alertness/activity, with occa- sional lucid intervals Delusions: often persecutory. Hence this abnormal mental state shows considerable clinical het- erogeneity. Subtypes or variants are described, one characterized by hyperactivity (“agitated”), the other by withdrawal and apathy (“quiet”). The course of delirium is usually brief (seldom more than a few days, often only hours). On recovery the patient may have no recol- lection of events, although islands of recall may be preserved, cor- responding with lucid intervals (a useful, if retrospective, diagnostic feature). Delirium is often contrasted with dementia, a “chronic brain syn- drome,” in which attention is relatively preserved, the onset is insidious rather than acute, the course is stable over the day rather than fluctu- ating, and which generally lasts months to years. However, it should be noted that in the elderly delirium is often superimposed on dementia, which is a predisposing factor for the development of delirium, perhaps reflecting impaired cerebral reserve. Risk fac- tors for the development of delirium may be categorized as either predisposing or precipitating. The EEG may show nonspecific slowing in delirium, the degree of which is said to correlate with the degree of impairment, and reverses with resolution of delirium. It is suggested that optimal nursing of delirious patients should aim at environmental modulation to avoid both under- and over-stim- ulation; a side room is probably best (if possible). Drug treatment is not mandatory, the evidence base for pharma- cotherapy is slim. However, if the patient poses a risk to him/herself, other patients, or staff which cannot be addressed by other means, reg- ular low dose haloperidol may be used, probably in preference to atyp- ical neuroleptics, benzodiazepines (lorazepam), or cholinesterase inhibitors. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2004; 75: 362-367 Larner AJ. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience & Rehabilitation 2004; 4(2): 28-29 Lindesay J, Rockwood K, Macdonald A (eds. Clinical Medicine 2003; 3: 412-415 Cross References Agraphia; Attention; Coma; Delusion; Dementia; Hallucination; Illusion; Logorrhea; Obtundation; Stupor; “Sundowning” Delusion A delusion is a fixed false belief, not amenable to reason (i. There are a number of common forms of delusion, including: Persecutory (paranoia) Reference: important events or people being influenced by patients thoughts, ideas Grandiose/expansive: occur particularly in mania Guilt/worthlessness: occur particularly in depression Hypochondria Thought broadcast and thought insertion Control by an external agency. Specific, named, delusional syndromes are those of: Capgras: the “delusion of doubles,” a familiar person or place is thought to be an impostor, or double; this resembles the redu- plicative paramnesia described in neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Fregoli: a familiar person is identified in other people, even though they bear no resemblance; this may occur in schizophrenia. Delusions are a feature of primary psychiatric disease (psychoses, such as schizophrenia; neuroses, such as depression), but may also be encountered in neurological disease with secondary psychiatric fea- tures (“organic psychiatry”), e.
These approaches include direct assessments of performance buy 100 mg extra super levitra erectile dysfunction injection therapy, learning portfolios discount 100mg extra super levitra visa erectile dysfunction protocol book, research projects, self and peer assessment, and regular and constructive feedback on learning. In the criterion-referenced approach de- scribed above, the objectives are embedded in the assessment tasks, so if students focus on assessment, they will be learning what the objectives say they should be learning. This is a positive solution to the common problem of the negative impact of assessment. ASSESSMENT METHODS In planning your assessment, it is necessary to be aware of the variety of methods available to you. It is impossible to be comprehensive for reasons of space so we will restrict ourselves to some common methods. We will also include information about some innovative approaches developed recently, which may be of interest. We do this deliberately in an attempt to encourage you to become subversive! With your new-found knowledge of assessment you will soon be involved in situations where it is obvious that inappropriate methods are being used. The first two you may be able to influence by rational argument based on the type of information we provide in this book. TYPES OF ASSESSMENT 1 Essay Short-answer 2 Structured 3 Objective tests 4 Direct observation 5 Oral 6 Structured clinical/practical assessment 7 Self-assessment 8 Learning portfolio 9 1. ESSAY We suggest caution in the use of the essay, except in situations where its unique attributes are required. The essay is the only means we have to assess the students’ ability to compose an answer and present it in effective 134 prose. Of particular importance in higher education seems to be the assumption that the production of written language and the expression of thought are scholarly activities of considerable worth and that essays encourage students to develop more desirable study habits. Though they are relatively easy to set, essays are time- consuming to mark. The widespread use of multiple- choice tests and the advent of computer scoring has lifted the marking burden from many academics, few of whom would wish to take it up again. Excluding such selfish reasons, there are other grounds for being concerned about using essays. Several studies have shown significant differences between the marks allocated by difference examiners and even by the same examiner re-marking the same papers at a later date. In the extended response question the student’s factual knowledge and ability to provide and organise ideas, to substantiate them and to present them in coherent English are tested. The extended essay is useful for testing knowledge objectives at the higher levels such as analysis and evaluation. Another type of essay question is the restricted response, an example of which is shown in Figure 8. The restricted response form sets boundaries on the answer required and on its organisation. An advantage of the more restricted format is that it can decrease the scoring problems (and hence be more reliable). If you intend to set and mark essay questions in an examination, then we suggest that you keep in mind the points in Figure 8. For essays, or other written assignments required during a course of study, you should take steps to improve the quality of feedback to students. Not only can such an attachment provide very useful individual feedback, but used early in a course with a model answer, it can show students the standards you expect fromthem, and also help you in awarding marks. SHORT-ANSWER AND SIMPLE COMPUTATION QUESTIONS Short-answer tests have been surprisingly little used in recent years, yet another casualty of the multiple-choice boom. However, we have found them increasingly useful as our concerns about the limitations of the objective type tests have become more apparent. Though easy to mark, it is essential that markers are provided with a well constructed marking key, especially if more than one correct answer is possible, or if several processes are involved in answering the question (See Figure8. Obviously more short-answer questions than essays can be fitted into a fixed time period. If one of the purposes of the assessment is to cover a wide content area, then short- answer questions have distinct advantages.
The treatment of scoliosis in muscular dystro- phy using modiﬁed Luque and Harrington–Luque instrumentation discount extra super levitra 100mg amex erectile dysfunction cialis. Neuromuscular Disorders of Infancy effective 100mg extra super levitra impotence in women, Childhood and Adolescence: A Clinician’s Approach. INTRODUCTION The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the remarkable structure at the interface of the motor axon and its innervated muscle ﬁber that is responsible for neuromuscular transmission. It is a synapse, but a highly specialized synapse because of its both cri- tical and unique physiologic task. The NMJ is designed to transfer the motor axon potential to a muscle ﬁber action potential with 100% ﬁdelity. In this respect, it is unlike all other synapses in the brain where various excitatory and inhibitory inﬂu- ences engage in a competition with one another to inﬂuence postsynaptic ﬁring. That the NMJ normally functions without failure is remarkable given the size difference: the terminal motor axon within the synapse is tiny and the innervated muscle ﬁber is massive. The infusion current required in order to bring the muscle cell membrane to its depolarization threshold is correspondingly large. Neuromuscular transmission is critical to viability: it is not an accident that the various steps in the process of neuromuscular transmission are the biologic target of choice for evolved toxins injected by many different predators, or that a wide array of rare genetic and acquired disorders of the neuromuscular junction manifest with obvious and often life-threatening symptoms. The complexity of neuromuscular transmission, and the early and obvious manifestation of its dysfunction, is expressed in the array of disorders that affect children. Fortunately, the sophistication of diagnosis rivals that in any other area of molecular, genetic, immunologic, or physiologic branch of neuroscience, and many of the various disorders of neuromuscular transmission are associated with speciﬁc and successful treatment. The process of neuromuscular transmission involves a series of physiologic steps. First, arrival of a sodium channel-mediated conducted action potential to the terminal motor axon opens voltage-gated calcium channels on the presynaptic surface. The inﬂux of calcium triggers a series of proteins to bind and fuse acetylcho- line (ACh) containing vesicles to the inner presynaptic membrane, releasing their contents into the synaptic cleft. The ACh then diffuses across the 70 mm space of the synapse, through a loose basal lamina, to bind reversibly to acetylcholine recep- tors (AChR) on the surface of the muscle cell. This in turn opens a cation channel, 201 202 Crawford permitting the in rush of sodium ion. The membrane depolarization produced by release of a single presynaptic vesicle of ACh into the synaptic cleft is in the range of 1 mV. With each motor axon action potential, approximately 100 vesicles are released, resulting in a summed muscle depolarization of approximately 40 mV, more than enough to meet the 10–20 mV threshold necessary to open adjacent voltage- gated sodium channels surrounding the NMJ. The process of neuromuscular trans- mission is enhanced by the presence of multiple pleated folds in the postsynaptic muscle membrane that are densely lined with voltage-gated sodium channels. Depolarization of the voltage-gated sodium channels within each of these electrically isolated folds acts as an ampliﬁer, multiplying the current inﬂux and membrane potential difference within the region of the junction. Small cation currents at the AChR thus lead to substantial currents around the NMJ, sufﬁcient to trigger an action potential across the muscle ﬁber surface that leads to muscle cell contraction through an equally remarkable downstream series of steps. The excess of current beyond that necessary to trigger the muscle cell action potential is called the safety factor. In one way or another, all symptomatic disorders of neuromuscular junction ultimately act by diminishing the safety factor. The result is that some, or many, of the conducted motor action potentials fail to trigger a muscle ﬁber action poten- tial, and the muscle ﬁber fails to contract. This can be by disturbing any step of the process, from decreasing the number of ACh molecules per vesicle, decreasing the number of vesicles that fuse with each motor axon potential, abnormal ACh binding or the associated binding of cation channels, diminished ampliﬁcation by simpliﬁca- tion of the postjunctional clefts, or diminished acetylcholinesterase activity. Infants tend to have less of a physiologic safety factor compared to older children and adults. Junctional failure at a single synapse is an all-or-nothing process, but at the level of the motor neuron it is graded, as some muscle ﬁbers may fail to contract while others respond normally. The speciﬁcs of physiologic testing for neuromuscu- lar junction failure are complex and beyond the scope of this chapter, but excellent reviews exist.
If the medical profession cannot defend its own integrity against government interference it is unlikely to make much headway in challenging the social causes of ill health cheap extra super levitra 100 mg amex pomegranate juice impotence. If doctors cannot take a stand against schemes of state-sponsored cheap extra super levitra 100mg fast delivery impotence ruining relationship, medically-sanctioned coercion, then they risk finding themselves incapable of maintaining any sort of therapeutic relationship with their patients. Advisory Committee to the Surgeon-General of the Public Health Service (1964) Smoking and Health, Atlanta: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (1982) Treatment and Rehabilitation, London: HMSO. American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM IV), Washington DC: APA. Black Report (1980) Inequalities of Health, Report of a Research Working Group, Chairman Sir Douglas Black, London: DHSS (subsequently published as The Black Report (1982), London: Pelican. California Environmental Protection Agency (1997) Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Sacramento: California EPA. COMA (Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy) (1994) Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, London: HMSO. Department of Health and Social Security (1976) Prevention and Health: Everybody’s Business, Discussion document, London: HMSO. Kumar (eds) Public and Private in Thought and Practice: Perspectives on a Grand Dichotomy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cook (eds) Mad Cows and Modernity, Canberra: Australian National University. Home Office, Department of Health, Department of Education and Science, Welsh Office (1991) Working Together, London: HMSO. Limerick (1998) The Limerick Report, The final report of the expert group to investigate cot death theories, London: DOH. Medical Council on Alcoholism (1987) Hazardous Drinking: A Handbook for General Practitioners, London: MCA. Merrison (1975) Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Regulation of the Medical Profession (Merrison Report), Cmnd 6018, London: HMSO. Nuffield Institute for Health, Welsh Institute for Health and Social Care, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (1998) The Health of the Nation— A Policy Assessed, London: Stationery Office. Public Health Alliance (1992) The Health of the Nation: Challenges for a New Government, Birmingham: PHA. Public Health Laboratory Service (2000) Aids/HIV Quarterly Surveillance Tables, 45 (99) 4 (March), London: PHLS. Royal College of General Practitioners (1988) Alcohol—a Balanced View, London: RCGP. Royal College of Physicians (1962) Smoking and Health, London: Royal College of Physicians. Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Psychiatrists, Royal College of General Practitioners (1995) Alcohol and the Heart in Perspective, London: RCP, RCPsych, RCGP. Royal College of Psychiatrists (1986) Our Favourite Drug: New Report on Alcohol and Alcohol-Related Problems, London: Tavistock. McQueen (eds) Readings for a New Public Health, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Social Affairs Unit/Manhattan Institute (1991) Health, Lifestyle and the Environment, London / New York: SAU/Manhattan Institute. Starr, R (1982) The Social Transformation of American Medicine, New York: Basic Books. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare (1979) Healthy People, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. US Environmental Protection Agency (1992) Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking, Washington, DC: EPA. US Surgeon-General (1986) The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking, Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services. Toronto Disclaimer: Some images in the printed version of this book are not available for inclusion in the eBook. Using Alternative Therapies: A Qualitative Analysis by Jacqueline Low First published in 2004 by Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc. No part of this publication may be photocopied, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical or otherwise, without the written permission of Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc. In the case of photocopying, a licence from Access Copyright may be obtained: One Yonge Street, Suite 1900, Toronto, Ontario, M5E 1E5, (416) 868-1620, fax (416) 868-1621, toll-free 1-800-893-5777, www.
Louis Stromeyer of muscles of the left leg were completely paralysed order extra super levitra 100 mg online erectile dysfunction doctor toronto, Hanover had proposed important modiﬁcations of leading to contracture and talipes equinovarus discount extra super levitra 100mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction zoloft. Delpech’s plan and treated two patients success- His young school companions in England gave fully. Little decided to go to Germany and learn him the nickname “lame duck” and in France for himself, taking with him a letter of introduc- “canard boitu. In Goodman’s Fields and acquired knowledge of 1835 and 1836, he visited Leyden, Leipzig, French, as well as of English grammar and arith- Dresden, and Berlin, and made contact with metic. About this time he and his father went to several distinguished surgeons and anatomists. Both He found that there was no more enthusiasm for arrived at Dieppe, prostrate with sea sickness. After 2 years at the day school, he spent some However, Professor Muller and Professor Froriep years at a school at St. Margaret’s, near Dover, of Berlin considered that Stromeyer’s operation and at the age of 13 entered the celebrated Jesuit was based on sound anatomical and surgical prin- College of St. Thus encouraged, Little went to Hanover guished himself by winning, against native com- and placed himself under the care of Stromeyer, petitors, the prize for French composition. He who divided his tendo Achillis, gradually cor- afterwards spoke highly of the management of rected the deformity of the foot, and gained a the College, and of the instruction and kindness successful result. Little was more than pleased that he received; the Fathers made no attempt to with the treatment. For 2 years he was apprenticed to James through a one-inch incision on each side of the Sequeira, a surgeon apothecary of Aldgate, whose tendo Achillis, and it was therefore liable to infec- 202 Who’s Who in Orthopedics tion. On the other hand, Stromeyer’s operation found himself in possession of a remedy, and it was truly subcutaneous, performed through a became insistent in his mind that the remedy single tiny puncture—the only method with any should be put to the service of the community. Little He dreamt of an institution for the study and treat- returned to Berlin. He showed his cured foot, and ment of cripples, and to this project he applied all demonstrated Stromeyer’s operation, to both his energies. After spending 2 years in collecting Muller and Diffenbach and convinced them of funds and ﬁnding a site, the Orthopedic Inﬁrmary the great advance initiated by this new procedure. Lord He impressed them so much that he was allowed Chancellor Eldon was chairman. This was the ﬁrst to dissect many deformed fetuses in the Berlin hospital in Britain to be devoted solely to the museum. An account of these researches, and of study and treatment of disabilities of the limbs the treatment of talipes varus, including that of his and spine and in which the word “orthopedic” own case, were embodied in a Latin thesis enti- was incorporated in its name. It was something tled “Symbolae ad Talipedem Varum Cognescen- new; and it was an outward and visible sign that dum,” for which he was awarded the degree of a special branch of surgery was emerging. A large subcutaneous tenotomy in London on February mansion on the north side of Hanover Square, for- 20, 1837, the year that Queen Victoria came to the merly occupied by Earl St. This was the beginning in England of a Admiral, was bought and altered to provide serious attempt to deal with deformity by opera- accommodation for 50 beds. On March 25, 1845, a had been neglected, and Little threw himself with Royal Charter of Incorporation was granted to the great ardor into the task of rousing the profession. Inﬁrmary, the name of which was changed to Patients quickly came his way; he gained experi- “The Royal Orthopedic Hospital. In this book the deformity “talipes canca- this last hospital, in 1892, Mrs. Muirhead Little neus” was so named and described for the ﬁrst started the ﬁrst hospital school of which there is time—“bearing the same relation to T. She ﬁrst frankly orthopedic work to be published in started with part-time teachers; but the venture this country. On July 3 the same year he was el- was so successful that a whole-time teaching staff ected assistant physician to the London Hospi- was soon employed.
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